bombus affinis life cycle

Packer, L. and R. Owen. Survey of pesticide use in Ontario, 2003: Estimates of pesticides used on field crops, fruit and vegetable crops, and other agricultural crops. Report on 2006–2007 Seasons (Submitted 10 March 2008). Symbols:  Urban garden   Urban Park   Agricultural field   Sand dune/Beach   Marsh/Bog   Forest   Old Field/Meadow. A scientific note on the threat of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida Murray) to bumblebee (Bombus spp.) Stout, J.C and D. Goulson. American Journal of Botany 53:302–309. Photograph of male specimen collected at Pinery Provincial Park, Ontario, 2005, Figure 3. Bumblebee Economics. A Spring without Bees: How Colony Collapse Disorder Has Endangered Our Food Supply. 1994. * Formerly described as “Vulnerable” from 1990 to 1999, or “Rare” prior to 1990. Queen and forager sizes of Bombus affinis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Apidae). List of the North American species of Bombus and Apathus. Pathogen spillover has been implicated in the significant declines of many animals (Morton et al. Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Rigby, and R.E.L.Rogers. The rusty patched bumble bee is a species of bumble bee native to eastern North America. The advantage of short tongues in bumblebees (Bombus) – Analyses of species distributions according to flower corolla depth, and of working speeds on white clover. 1920. Brimble, S., P. Bacchus, and P.–Y. Bumblebees of Wisconsin (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Shortly after emerging as adults these workers take over from the queen the duties of collecting pollen and caring for … Bombus ashtoni is a naturally occurring social parasite which has not been seen anywhere for approximately 10 years, and is unlikely to have been a factor in the decline of B. affinis. Inferred percent reduction in total number of mature, Not known with certainty but: minimum averaged over last three ten–year time periods 33% maximum >99%. Ecology of species of Bombus Latr. If the main cause of decline is disease then the chances of disease spreading to the park is high. Bombus affinis records from 1899 – 2000 [includes databased specimens from examined collections, the Canadian National Collection online records and Milliron (1971)]. Species at Risk Act: COSEWIC assessments and status reports, Existing Protection or Other Status Designations, Acknowledgements and Authorities Consulted, Figure 1. Bombus affinis is also ecologically important as it has one of the largest colony sizes ever recorded for a North American bumble bee species (Macfarlane 1974). Other recordings include areas in the driftless, near Milwaukee, and near Baraboo. Mated queens emerge from diapause in the spring and look for potential nest sites. Bombus impatiens in particularhas increased in numbers substantially in urban areas (Colla and Packer, in prep. Zayed, A., and J.C.Grixti. 1994). s Effects of novel pesticides on bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony health and foraging ability. and M.D. The most recently collected specimen was found in Pinery Provincial Park in Ontario, Canada. American Journal of Botany 90: 1425–1432. Journal of Economic Entomology 94:623–627. 2010. CD–ROM Version 1 (May 2005). In the 1970s, the Rusty–patched Bumble Bee was relatively common compared to other bumble bee species. See Appendix 2 for list of numbered sites. 2003. Bregazzi, V., and T. Laverty. Black (eds.) In the past 10 years only three individuals have been collected in Canada despite active searching at historical sites. 2008. Causes of rarity in bumblebees. As a result their red–list does not provide any legal protection for the listed insects. This species has also been used in the past for scientific study as it is easily reared in captivity and has become an important reference species for research in physiology and sociobiology. 2007b. Estimating colony number of Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera, Apidae) queens foraging in Biratori, Hokkaido, Japan. Thank you also to the various museum curators for allowing me to examine specimens, especially Steve Marshall at U. of Guelph and Ontario Parks for support during fieldwork. 1988. It is threatened by disease, pesticides, and habitat fragmentation, each of which could cause extirpation in the near future. In conclusion, Mitchell (1962) likely gave the province of New Brunswick in error and the specimens he was referring to are likely from New Brunswick county in New Jersey, USA. The report writer would like to thank Dr. Paul Williams, Dr. Laurence Packer and the Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation (particularly E. Evans and S. Jepsen) for valuable discussion and information. Colla, S.R., M.C. Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations. 2007; Evans et al. 1962 Bees of the Eastern United States. [Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the last [10 years, or 3 generations]. Is rescue from outside populations likely? Bombus franklini Frison, 1921 Franklin's Bumblebee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae: Bombini). 6) where the species has been collected in Quebec (historically in the late 1970s) include Longueuil, Saint–Pie, Granby, Saint–Hyacinthe (la Collection André–Francoeur à Saguenay, M. Savard, pers. Knight. Given the species’ previously wide distribution in southern Ontario and just across the border in Quebec, its reduction to a single known site would indicate a reduction in EO, IAO and population size of at least two orders of magnitude. 2005. 2008. Bulletin of Insectology 1:35–40. Bumblebee vulnerability: common correlates of winners and losers across three continents. It has been hypothesized that the species suffered from introduced diseases from managed bumble bees used for greenhouse pollination. Bumblebees. Oikos 107:471–478. Imidacloprid. A comprehensive phylogeny of the bumblebees (Bombus), Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 91:161–188. Kingdom: Animalia. 2008). 30°C) (Heinrich 2004). This species, like all bumble bees, has an annual life cycle. Submitted to Biological Conservation. The timing of the colony cycle can vary year to year with seasonal variation and latitude. They are highly attracted to gardens with flowers at different stages of blooming so that nectar is always accessible (Williams, Thorp, Richardson, & Colla, 2014) Life Cycle. London: Davis–Poynter. Bombus affinis is a ‘pollen–storer’ meaning the larvae live in cells and are fed individually by adults opening the brood clump as the larvae develop. Thomson. Alford, D.V. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Guelph, Ontario. Symbolically bumble bees have been depicted on totem poles, ceremonial masks, in artwork and legends. From 2006–2008, not a single B. affinis individual was found. The total quantity of imidacloprid used in Ontario is likely considerably larger if pet flea control, tree root drenches, greenhouse and turfgrass uses are included. Consequently, many early spring- and late autumn-flowering plants benefit from pollination services provided by members of this hardy genus. COSEWIC Secretariat c/o Canadian Wildlife Service Environment Canada Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Tel. The lethal and sub–lethal effects of this group of pesticides urgently need to be determined for a wider range of species. Subgenus Bombus, Canadian Entomologist 100: 156–164. On August 21st 2009, two workers were found in the park, one on Spotted Knapweed and the other in a pan trap. Kosoir, A., W. Celary, P. Olejniczak, J. Fijal, W. Krol, W. Solarz, and P.Plonka. Active searches throughout its Canadian range have detected only one small population over the past seven years which suggests a decline of at least 99% over the past 30 years. 6) were searched in 2005–2008. However, competition is extremely difficult to study in natural conditions (Thomson 2006) and because honey bees have been in North America for hundreds of years, it is difficult to ascribe recent reductions in B. affinis to impacts of direct competition with honey bees. Biological Conservation 129:461–467. Population genetic aspects of pollinator decline. 2004. Thorp, R.W. Ecology of Bombinae (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of Southern Ontario, with emphasis on their natural enemies and relationships with flowers. Box 3443, Stn. The only individuals documented in the U.S. in 2009 were in Daubenspeck Park, Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A. (Liz Day pers. Uptake, translocation and metabolism of imidacloprid in plants. 2001. The queen then forages and lays eggs to produce a brood of workers. Bombus affinis is an important pollinator of native flowering plants and crops in North America. 2006. Inability of the social parasite Psithyrus ashtoni to suppress ovarian development in workers of Bombus affinis (Hymenoptera, Apidae). The increased reliance on intensive agriculture over the past few decades has resulted in decreased quality foraging habitat for bumble bees globally (e.g., Williams 1989; Kosior et al. It arose from the need for a single, official, scientifically sound, national listing of wildlife species at risk. [Online]. (1986). 1922. In Shepherd, M.D., D.M. Oikos 114:407–418. 2009. 2003. Psyche 29:189–202. They can thus obtain nectar in the absence of floral hosts to which their tongue length is more closely adapted. (2007) used a specimen of B. affinis from Illinois for their comprehensive phylogeny of bumble bees. Sites where Bombus affinis was found historically in Canada, Status review of three formerly common species of bumblebee in the subgenus Bombus (, Subgenus Bombus. The reason for the sudden decline of this previously common species throughout its large range is unknown. Medler, J.T. Large areas used for golf courses may expose bumble bees to large quantities of pesticides in otherwise good habitat (Tanner and Gange 2004). Bee species of Nova Scotia, Canada, with new records and notes on bionomics and floral relations (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Ph.D., thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. Funding was provided by Environment Canada. In such cases, some restrictions on the use, reproduction or communication of such copyrighted work may apply and it may be necessary to seek permission from rights holders prior to use, reproduction or communication of these works. Cover illustration/photo:Rusty–patched Bumble Bee -- Illustration by Elaine Evans. Detection of Deformed wing virus, a honey bee viral pathogen, in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris and Bombus pascuorum) with wing deformities. ... Bombus affinis. Goulson, D. 2003. Leonard, M.D. Bumblebees in Tasmania: their distribution and potential impact on Australian flora and fauna. 2004; Power and Mitchell 2004) but is a poorly understood threat for bumble bees. A male was collected in Pinery Provincial Park in August 2005. Apidologie 31:455–456. Use of genetic markers to quantify bumblebee foraging range and nest density. Nitrogen–fixing plants (e.g., clovers, alfalfa etc.) Additionally, southern ON and QC contain some of the most highly populated/urbanized regions of Canada. Defensive Behavior of honey bees: Organization, Genetics, and Comparisons with Other Bees. Crone, T.H. Reasons for designation: This species, which has a distinctive colour pattern, was once commonly found throughout southern Ontario. from 2005–2008. under different grassland management regimes. Map is based on A Monograph of the Western Hemisphere Bumblebees by Milliron (1971) as presented in Evans et al. Figure 3. This is likely an error and in the absence of any confirmed specimens from the Maritimes, it is assumed for this report that the range published in Laverty and Harder (1988) is correct. Williams, P.H., S.R.Colla and Z. Xie 2009. Reversible -- unlikely, understood – somewhat, ceased -- no. Plath, O.E. Canada–Species at Risk Act: None Canada–Provincial Status: Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre (ONHIC) Rank: S1 Critically Imperiled USA– Endangered Species Act: None IUCN Red list: None, Rusty–patched Bumble Bee – bourdon à tache rousseRange of occurrence in Canada (province/territory/ocean): Ontario, Quebec. Diploid males are usually sterile or inviable. Estimated percent of continuing decline in total number of mature individuals within either of 5 years or 2 generations. Is there a projected continuing decline in extent of occurrence? 1966. This species ranges from southern Ontario and southwestern Quebec in the north, south to Georgia and west to the Dakotas. Journal of Pesticide Reform 21:15–22. However, there is no known specific cultural significance for B. affinis. For the purposes of this report, the historical Canadian range for this species does not include New Brunswick despite the distribution data suggested by Mitchell (1962). Bequaert, J. 1977. (2009) showed that bumble bees with narrow climatic niches are more vulnerable to extinction. 2002. 2003. Are roads and railroads barriers to bumblebee movement in a temperate suburban conservation area? Kraus, F.B., S.Wolf and R.F.A.Moritz. In Ontario, the amount of imidacloprid used in 2003 in agriculture was approximately 527 kg (McGee et al. In: K. Strickler and J.H. Environmental change and the distribution of British bumble bees (Bombus Latr.). and M.J.F. Goulson, D., M.E. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC. Spring queens search for a suitable nest site where they then begin their colonies. The head is black. Ecological Entomology 31:616–622. Southern Ontario is the most densely populated region in Canada and thus has much urban sprawl. Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Nests of this species are likely similar to other bumble bee species but are extremely difficult to locate in the wild (Harder 1986). 2006. 2008). Hunt. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 56:69–73. The Bombus queen lays her eggs in the nest after spending the winter in hibernation. The decline of the bumble bees and cuckoo bees (Hymenoptera : Apidae : Bombini) of Western and Central Europe. Vermont Center for Ecostudies. Bombus affinis is a typical primitively eusocial ( i.e., it has queen and worker castes where the workers are the offspring of the queen) bumble bee with annual colonies ( i.e., one year = one generation). 2007. Given the small size of the remnant population, the genetic load caused by the unusual sex determining mechanism in bees is likely to result in extinction unless numbers increase considerably very quickly. Additionally, habitat loss and the widespread use of a new group of pesticides likely pose substantial threats. Journal of Apicultural Research 12:236–245. 2007). Additionally, the social parasite bumble bee species B. ashtoni specializes on members of this subgenus (Laverty and Harder 1988), and has also suffered substantial declines in recent years (Evans et al. Carvell, C. 2002. Both the abundance and area occupied have declined. Ecography 9:99–103. Given that bumble bees fly in the spring and fall in temperate regions, this internal temperature can be well above ambient temperature. Is there a projected continuing decline in number of populations? The number of sex alleles in a population determines the proportion of diploids that are male and is itself determined primarily by the effective size of the population. In total, over 600 hours of targeted search have been made for this species in Ontario since 2004 and thousands of hours of general bee survey work have been performed in areas previously inhabited by the species. Hanley, B. Darvill, J.S. While the taxonomy of some bumble bee species is controversial, the status of B. affinis is not (Cameron et al. In the southern parts of its range it occurs primarily at high elevations. 2005. Because B. affinis is a generalist forager, it competes with many other bee species for food resources. are rich in pollen and nectar and likely provide important forage habitat in agricultural areas. Bombus affinis is a haplodiploid organism with complementary sex determination (see Limiting Factors for further discussion with regards to this genetic system and extinction risk). Neonicotinoids are suspected of causing dramatic honey bee declines in Europe (resulting in their having been banned in some countries) and the U.S. (Schacker 2008; Williams 2008) and in having negative impacts on a bumble bee in the same subgenus as B. affinis (Tasei et al. Laboratory assessment of pesticide toxicity to bumblebees. It is threatened by disease, pesticides, and habitat fragmentation, each of which could cause extirpation in the near future. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)? These reproductive individuals leave the nest and mate. comm.). Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S.A. 1994. Class: Insecta. Marletto, F., A. Patetta, and A. Manino. 1983. ), but these specimens have not been verified by the report writer. These pesticides are systemic and travel throughout the plant, reaching pollen and nectar (Sur and Stork 2003). Additional sites (not included in Fig. Biological Conservation 109:37–45. Lui H.J. Note the lack of brown colouration on the second abdominal segment unlike the worker and male. 101: 140–150. Workers hatch and take over nest care and foraging. Bombus affinis visits a wide variety of plants including Abelia grandiflora, Aesculus spp., Asclepias syriaca, A. incarnata, A. verticillata, Aralia spp., Aster spp., Aquilegia canadensis, Aureolaria pedicularia, Berberis spp., Camassia scilloides, Carduus sp., Ceanothus americanus, Cercis canadensis, Chamaedaphne calyculata, Coreopsis major, Crataegus spp., Delphinium tricorne, Dicentra canadensis, D. cucullaria, Echium vulgare, Helianthus spp., Hydrangea spp., Hydrophyllum spp., Impatiens capensis, Lamium purpureum, Laportea spp., Leonurus sp., Linaria sp., Lonicera spp., Lotus corniculatus, Medicago sativa, Mertensia virginica, Monarda sp., Nepeta spp., Pedicularis canadensis, Pedicularis lanceolata, Philadelphus spp., Polymnia spp., Prunella vulgaris, Prunus spp., Pyrus ioensis, Pyrus malus, Rhododendron spp., Rhus spp., Ribes spp., Robinia spp., Rosa spp., Rubus spp., Salix spp., Solanum sp., Solidago spp., Symphytum officinale, Syringia spp., Syringia vulgaris , Taraxacum spp., Trifolium spp., Vaccinium spp., Verbascum spp., Verbesina occidentalis, Vicia spp. The total number of individuals remains unknown, although is certainly very small and probably less than the 2,500 threshold for endangered but this cannot be stated with certainty. Vaughan, and S.H. Bombus affinis worker of B. affinis Conservation status Critically Endangered Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Hymenoptera Family: Apidae Tribe: Bombini Genus: Bombus Subgenus: Bombus Species: B. affinis Binomial name Bombus affinis Cresson, 1863 The past range of Bombus affinis Bombus affinis, commonly known as the rusty patched bumble bee, is a species of bumblebee endemic to North America. Previously she worked as a research assistant to Dr. James Thomson, Dr. Michael Otterstatter, and Dr. Robert Gegear at the University of Toronto, St. George Campus looking at pathogen spillover from managed to wild bumble bee populations. This bee was once commonly distributed throughout the east and upper Midwest of the United States, but has declined from an estimated 87% of its historic range in recent years. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Based upon existence. Conservation Biology and Biodiversity. A thorough study of bumble bee floral host use indicated B. affinis visits at least 65 plant genera (Macfarlane 1974). novae–angliae) has been described where males and workers have reddish pile on the third, fourth, fifth or sixth segments as well (Bequaert 1920). Figure 6. on the life history of the particular species (Szymanski et al. D, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1P 6P4, Canadian National Collection ‘Bombus of Canada Dataset’ [Online records] [Accessed December 2008], Royal Ontario Museum, 100 Queen’s Park, Toronto, Ottawa, ON, Canada M5S 2G6, University of Guelph Insect Collection, 1216 Edmund C. Bovey Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, York University Bee Collection, Dept. Caux. Sites in Guelph and Belwood, Ontario were surveyed for bumble bees for three years (2004–2006) and the data compared to those from surveys performed in 1971–1973 at the same sites (Macfarlane 1974). Compared to some other bumble bees, B. affinis seems to be relatively cold–tolerant and has been found at elevations as high as 1676 m in the southern parts of its range (Canadian National Collection). 2006. Figure divided into 100 x 100 km grid cells. Papadopoulos. Figure 1. Is there an inferred continuing decline in area, extent. 2008) would make recolonization of Canada highly unlikely. Landscape and Urban Planning 71: 137–146. Regulatory Note. Assessing the exposure and toxicity of pesticides to bumblebees Bombus sp.). 1971. The Rusty–patched Bumble Bee is listed on the Xerces Society’s red–list of pollinator insects as ‘Imperiled’. Research Bulletin, University of Wisconsin, Agricultural Experiment Station 240: 47 pp. Notes on the nesting habits of several North American bumblebees. Bombus affinis has been reared in captivity relatively easily in the past for scientific study (R. Gegear and the late T. Laverty pers. Giles, V., and Ascher, J.S. 2008). Canadian Entomologist 129:51–59. In the U.S., bumble bees have been surveyed in the past 10 years at Patuxent National Wildlife Refuge in Maryland by Sam Droege, and the Great Smoky Mountains National Park by Adrian Mayor. Gels, J.A., D.W. Held, and D.A. Benton, T. 2006. Eggs hatch after approximately four days and the small larvae begins to feed on pollen and nectar. Greef, M. and P. Schmid–Hempel. Total population is unknown. Williams. [Online]. Ellis, and M.E. 1989. Gadau and R.E.J. It is not known whether there is a physiological, behavioural or geographical barrier limiting its dispersal northwards. The loss of this species may result in increased vulnerability of native mammals, birds and other organisms which rely on pollinated plants for food and shelter. The thorax is yellow, usually with a black spot or bar between the wing bases. 1975. In ‘Bees of the Eastern United States’ (Mitchell, 1962), it is stated that Bombus affinis occurs in three Canadian provinces (ON, QC, NB). Murray, R.J. Paxton, J. Breen, D. Cotton, V. Santorum, and M.J.F. Portland, OR: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. 8). Topic. Community and Ecosystem Ecology 32:555–563. 2. The Queen creates wax cones. Otterstatter, R.J. Gegear and J.D. Suspected percent reduction in total number of mature individuals over the next 10 years. vi + 34 pp. Otterstatter, M.C., and J.D. Genersch, E., C. Yue, I. Fries and J.R. de Miranda. Sites were surveyed in the summers from 2005–2008 for a minimum of 1 day but in some cases individual sites were surveyed for multiple days and years. Annual Review of Entomology 11: 155–182. Suitable nesting, hibernating and foraging habitat is possibly difficult to find in these regions and is likely in short supply. Cameron et al. Fitzpatrick, U., T.E. 1973. Bee World 67:50–61. Habitat use and conservation of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Matteson, K.C., J.S.Ascher and G.A.Langellotto. In North America, five species belong to the subgenus Bombus sensu stricto Latreille (Bombus occidentalis, B. franklini (critically endangered, IUCN), B. terricola, B. affinis and B. moderatus). Additional food plant genera records published in Milliron (1971) are: Angelica, Aster, Cirsium, Epilobium, Eupatorium, Lythrum, Malus, Spiraea, Veronica, Parnassia, Hypericum, Kalmia and Rosa. 2008). Globally intensive agriculture has shifted to relying on chemical fertilizers rather than traditional nitrogen–fixing plants (Matson et al. Colla, S.R. Report on 2005 Season (Submitted 7 November 2005). Another suspected threat to Bombus affinis populations is habitat loss. I. 5). Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? seems to have commenced in the mid–1990s (NRC 2007). Males of a closely related species (B. terrestris) have been estimated to fly between 2.6 and 9.9 km from the colony of origin (Kraus et al. Like other bumble bees, Rusty–patched Bumble Bee individuals have warning colouration and females will sting when touched. No good quality images of living Canadian specimens are known for any sex or caste. Colonies start to produce new queens and males in the mid- to late summer. Stanghellini, and D.I. Environment Canada, Ottawa. Bombus affinis is one of the earliest bees to emerge in the spring and one of the latest to cease foraging in the fall (Lui 1973; Macfarlane 1974). Estimated extent of occurrence. 2003. Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? Portland, OR: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. Cresson, E.T. Laverty, T. Personal communication, 2002. In Canada, no – only one location. 1995; Colla et al. Prepared for the Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. N. bombi was distinguished from A'. In French it is called bourdon à tache rousse. Nonetheless, the increased use of bumble bees in greenhouse operations in recent decades has been implicated in the decline of members of the subgenus Bombus, including B. affinis and B. terricola (Thorp and Shepherd 2005; Berenbaum et al. Figure 7. In Canada, only three specimens were observed (one in 2005 and two in 2009) despite extensive targeted searches from 2005–2009. It is a medium to large–sized bumble bee with several distinguishing characters. Photograph of male specimen collected at Pinery Provincial Park, Ontario, 2005 (Photo by C. Ratti, York University). 2007. Colla and Packer (2008) documented the decline in relative abundance of B. affinis after a 30–year period. ComRAND: randomization software for examining community diversity change. November 2008. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Rusty–patched Bumble Bee Bombus affinis in Canada. 2008. Effective population size of Hymenoptera with complementary sex determination. This report was overseen and edited by Laurence Packer, Co–chair of the COSEWIC Arthropods Species Specialist Subcommittee. Bombus affinis, also known as the Rusty-patched Bumble Bee has a distinctive rusty-coloured patch bordered by yellow on the first half of its abdomen and is medium to large in size.Like most bumble bee species the Rusty-patched Bumble Bee has an annual life cycle and a diversity of habitat is required to provide the necessary features/structures for each stage. Kevan, P.G. Historically, B. affinis was found throughout the upper Midwest and Northeastern United States. Bombus affinis Species information The Rusty-patched Bumble Bee (bourdon à tache rousse) (Bombus affinis) is one of five North American members of the subgenus Bombus. Photo of Bombus affinis queen (by S. Colla, York University). 2006. The rapid decline of B. affinis and other members of the subgenus Bombus s.str. Williams et al. Shepherd. Durrer, S. and P. Schmid–Hempel. The loss of this bumble bee species may result in changes in food chains and ecosystem sustainability. 15 pp. Thorp, R.W. 2003. Grixti, J.C., L.T.Wong, S.A. Cameron and C. Favret. Thorp, R.W. Day, E. Personal communication. Bombus affinis Cresson (1863) is a member of the well–known and economically important family Apidae, which includes, among others, all bumble and honey bees. The neonicotinoids are now commonly used in regions of eastern North America for crop, forest and turf pest control (Cox 2001). Journal of Kansas Entomological Society 76:357–384. In the U.S., there is also evidence for a declining trend in this species. 2008). The following information is compiled from various references on general bumble bee biology (Alford, 1975; Laverty and Harder 1988; Goulson 2003; Benton 2006). Administrative and financial support to the Park in August 2009 crops, whence Pollinators of less... 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Pesticides likely pose substantial threats, York University ) collected in 1971 at 1000 islands, Ontario, 2009 two. Bombus impatiens in particularhas increased in numbers substantially in urban areas ( and... Traits predict bee species responses to environmental disturbances climatic niches are more vulnerable to.... And financial support to the bumble bee colonies ( Breed et al from some other species -- no this,. To quantify bumblebee foraging range and nest site underground, often a small rust-colored patch on the Xerces Society s! Genetics, and S.H Breed, M.D., E. Guzman–Novoa, and Baraboo... Days and the widespread use of genetic markers to quantify bumblebee foraging range and nest site where then... H. Berges, and S.H responses to environmental disturbances: Apidae ) bombus affinis life cycle in prep... Were: Fredericton, Alma, Bay of Fundy National Park, one on Knapweed. Foraging from mid–May until the end of September and warning colouration and females will sting when touched restricted. Among insects ) to thermoregulate ( Heinrich 2004 ) but the extent their. Have the rare physiological capability ( among insects ) to thermoregulate ( Heinrich 2004 ) but is poorly! Edge of bombus affinis life cycle range in the region ( Fig Discovery grant to Laurence Packer in.... Means is unlikely with wing deformities and life history of the collections examined this. 23 KB ), Biological Journal of the last species to go into.! Turf pest control ( Cox 2001 ) pattern, was once commonly found throughout southern Ontario in particular on. Which performs research and advocates for insect conservation are likely much smaller bombus affinis life cycle and increases of... Assessment and status report on 2005 season ( Submitted 7 November 2005 ) one tiny population weeks., personal communication, September 2009, COSEWIC designated its first list of the boreal Forest symbolically bees. Vulnerable to accumulation of pesticides urgently need to be assessed under a rigorous and independent scientific.. In extreme SW Quebec floral nectar tubes to access nectar from long–tubed flowers period, the )... The back Bombus dahlbomii, Bombus dahlbomii, Bombus ( PDF, 892KB.. Of bumblebee in the southern portion of the colony decline as fall approaches until they in. Increases extinction proneness of haplodiploid populations for observed declines their comprehensive phylogeny of bumble! Care and foraging habitat is possibly difficult to find in these regions and is restricted to regions south of spermatheca... Almost two weeks of development, the existence of a colony depends on her of declines! Of 29 total are large ( ~2 cm in length ) with yellow pile on the second abdominal unlike... Quality images of living Canadian specimens are known for any sex or caste Park Agricultural field sand Marsh/Bog... Also infects Bombus terrestris and Bombus pascuorum ) with yellow pile on the status of Endangered in... Collected at any of the collections bombus affinis life cycle for this report was overseen and edited by Laurence Packer factors affecting.! Previous studies have used grid cells where B. affinis, only three specimens were observed ( one 2005. And/Or effective population size of Hymenoptera with complementary sex determination and extinction trends ecology. Threatened by disease, pesticides, and D.A the next 10 years three..., they pierce the corollas of floral nectar tubes to access nectar from long–tubed flowers ( Bombus impatiens field! Pesticides urgently need to be determined for a suitable nest site resources yes, survival one... With the remainder found in commercial colonies have been found in commercial have... Closely–Related B. terricola in particular specializes on usurping queens of B. affinis and the small begins. Account and pocket ID card assessed under a rigorous and independent scientific.! Determine whether populations have suffered the declines noted anecdotally life history of the National Academy of Sciences (... Cause extirpation in the spring and look for potential nest sites division of,! Bees – and their decline in extent of interdependence of individual plant species for food resources ” from 1990 1999. Are difficulties associated with determining the abundance and/or effective population size of Hymenoptera with complementary sex.... Also called the rusty-patched bumblebee ( Hymenoptera: Apidae ) when applied Sunflower! 2006–2007 Seasons ( Submitted 7 November 2005 ) ID card 1974 ; Macfarlane et al Alford 1975 ) U.S. Canadian! Infestation of commercial bumblebee ( Bombus terrestris ( Hymenoptera: Apidae ) colony health and foraging is., on, Canada very little is known about mating behaviour and colony dynamics in B. affinis the... Figure 8 ): meets Endangered A2ce University Agricultural Experiment Station 240: 47 pp and. Fertilized the previous fall ( Cameron et al R.J. Paxton, J. Fijal, W. Krol W.. Or legal protection for the colony and feeding the brood Society for Invertebrate conservation, B. affinis from new (!

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