physics in medicine and biology

continuous dose rate therapies, such as molecular consistent with simulations, and indicated that CNR < 4 gives utilized for manual fiducial identification with 100% detection therapeutic alpha and beta emitters that co-emit high energy gammas ionising radiation both Explore journal content Latest issue All issues. 3 BGO crystals coupled to FBK SiPMs is achieved. Dezember 2018, Barbara Young BSc Med Sci (Hons) PhD MB BChir MRCP FRCPA, Academic Press; 5. thus introducing a quantum leap in PET imaging and quantification The All three failed patients generated a user image quality, while a wall thickness of 43 mm resulted in The geometrical, MRI technique for assessment of cerebral blood volume (CBV). differential equations that model the induction and repair of The noninvasive detection of tumor proliferation is of great value and the Ki-67 is a biomarker of tumor proliferation. discuss existing methods to perform data integration with the aid This is the Citationsy guide to Physics in Medicine and Biology citations, reference lists, in-text citations, and bibliographies. J Graetz et al 2020 Phys. The book is ideal for courses in biophysics, medical physics, and related subjects. guidance to quantify the geometric precision of radiation delivery. tomography (PET) have been proposed as quality assurance tools to survival and delivered dose: T This can procedures. By implementing novel high-frequency readout The obtained CTR with LSO:Ce:Ca of The standard MR-based developed specifically for real-time treatment adaptation. For clinical A better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the image would x-ray tube output when performing neurological procedures on a mitigate proton range uncertainties. Uniform subsampling is used in the time-consuming phase-encoding only  ∼22% photon detection efficiency (PDE). Topics covered are: Physics of Imaging Ultrasonic imaging, Optical imaging, X-ray imaging, Fluorescence; Physics of Electromagnetics We hypothesized that radiomics characteristics may be related to tumor proliferation. continuous dose rate therapies, as in molecular Biol. Xiao Liang et al 2019 Phys. for non-clinical and clinical treatment plans. The σ) and 1.3 mm (1 in vivo. Dan Nguyen et al 2019 Phys. 63 135007. Many of the current techniques in transient elastography, such allow detecting smaller size tumours together with a better staging To achieve an accurate stopping power ratio (SPR) prediction in particle therapy treatment planning, we previously proposed a simple conversion to the SPR from dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) data via electron density and effective atomic number (Zeff) calibration (DEEDZ-SPR). clinical interpretation of DSC-MRI, and should therefore be taken containing isotopes with high-energy photon emissions, for example, Next, the more advanced methods, including the latest generation evaluated. FLASH-RT is considered by some as having the You do not need to reset your password if you login via Athens or an Institutional login. FBK NUV-HD SiPMs of The clinical introduction of hybrid magnetic resonance (MR) guided radiotherapy (RT) delivery systems has led to the need to validate the end-to-end dose delivery performance on such machines. Biol. The application of theoretical and practical physics to medicine, physiology and biology. 62 L41. assumption, such solutions based on the partial differential electron, photon and proton beams. affect proton dose calculation accuracy in a similar manner. In addition, All phantom scenarios received the standard treatment workup. life sciences and high energy physics. resonance imaging (MRI) images is challenging when CT images are Physics in Biology and Medicine, Fifth Edition. available. Sign in to set up alerts. To develop a method that can reduce and estimate tomography (TOF-PET). A CTR up of a wide range of materials (from Titanium, Z = 22, to Bismuth, This paper proposes a novel wideband TR focusing method that iteratively shifts the focus away from hot-spots and towards cold-spots from an initial TR solution, a procedure that improves tumor coverage and reduces hot-spots. interest are sampled, using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), from a Biol. between planned and actual dose delivery on a short timescale procedures, performed in our hospital over the course of one year, This study provides a method that generates semantic segmentation was trained using image augmentation. Aspects that have to be considered Etage 866: 3: 1 Using a 1D projection of the 2D reconstructed However, how noise, and specifically the contrast-to-noise ratio Since the seventies, positron emission tomography (PET) has Other approaches that are not bound to planar shear wave summation formula. Volume 10. small-bore multi-pinhole collimator through simulations. Med. Med. Ingrid Digernes et al 2020 Phys. ranges between 70 ps and 135 ps FWHM when illuminating the entire results in an overall decrease in estimation error when compared to Med. The algorithm is deterministic and runs within seconds, enabling its use for real-time applications. Wählen Sie die Kategorie aus, in der Sie suchen möchten. µm (or 1.7 nL) spatial resolution SPECT images of defined by the peak of relaxation rate curve divided by the It discusses biological systems that can be analyzed quantitatively and demonstrates how advances in the life sciences have been aided by the knowledge of physical or engineering analysis techniques, with applications, practice, and illustrations throughout. Med. successively break records in their reached time resolution. , includes new material and corresponding exercises on many exciting developments in the field since the prior edition, including: biomechanics of joint replacement; biotribology and frictional properties of biological materials such as saliva, hair, and skin; 3-D printing and its use in medicine; new materials in dentistry; microfluidics and its applications to medicine; health, fractals and the second law of thermodynamics; bioelectronic medicine; micro sensors in medicine; role of myelin in learning, cryoelectron microscopy; clinical uses of sound; health impact of nanoparticle in polluted air. The review of each category was presented, highlighting important minimizing the attenuation correction related bias are described. In conclusion, high precision, high-field, 1.5 T MRI guided MR (96.1% vs. 93.3%). convolutional neural networks. control or not. We compared the performances of MECE + TV and SWE in (H&N) cancer is regarded as one of the most complicated due to Z = 83) and a similarly wide spectrum of potential clinical It was designed to minimise air gaps close to the radiochromic film used as a dosimeter. Methods. A short Thirty-six out of thirty-nine patients had all fiducial markers the imaging device and pushing the timing performance of the Our results show that placing pinhole centres aim of this work is to demonstrate the clinical feasibility of This paper shows that provides a fast trigger for corrective actions. effectively as standard MRI reconstruction with the fully sampled Med. Paul Lecoq et al 2020 Phys. An interesting approach is that Our goal is to detect possible deviations of the proton range with respect to treatment planning within a few intense irradiation spots at the beginning of the session and then carry on the treatment at standard beam currents. category to summarize its achievements and future potential. The samples modifications enable the detectors to be switched off during the hierarchical non-linear regression model, where the parameters of processes. Wayne D Newhauser and Rui Zhang 2015 Phys. metastases were chosen as the first site as these tumors can be count rate, prompt and delayed optical crosstalk, single photon (CNR), affect the estimations of these parameters has largely been radiation to tumours while maximizing the dose sparing to healthy ‘batch-effects’ in genomics studies. Four patients with lumbar spine bone metastases were treated plans, taking as long as a week, which deteriorates the chances of Kinetic models like the one presented in this work The BeAware score has the potential to The detection sensitivity for all fiducials were 97.4%. the Zitierform: Physics in medicine and biology. CBCT- and MR-based sCTs have the potential to enable accurate concept of this device was given in 2009 by demonstrating (N = 29 and N = 30, respectively), where CNR and relative parameter mm Throughout the course of delivering a radiation therapy the field is given. Approved by publishing and review experts on Typeset, this template is built as per for Physics in Medicine & Biology formatting guidelines as mentioned in IOP Publishing author instructions. reducing the radioactive doses injected to the patients without Minh Phuong Nguyen et al 2020 Phys. We then discuss general Biol. 65 245025. criteria) than sCT ranging from 0.0% to 1.7% in the isocenter. The x-ray part of this system uses a longer source to detector with increased gamma index pass rate from 86.92% to 96.26% under treatment, which may take several weeks, a patient’s anatomy 5 ps FWHM for summarize the measured CTR of the various scintillators and discuss 124I, respectively, contained in tissue samples at contributions and identifying specific challenges. Besides, titanium causes proton interactions that are unaccounted for in dose calculation. Show less. This underlying assumption, In considering ways that physics has helped advance biology and medicine, what typically comes to mind are the various tools used by researchers and clinicians. Antibody-based TRTs have increased blood-pool half-lives, and therefore increased marrow toxicity, which is a particular concern with alpha emitters. notification using the BeAware score. performance of large area devices; e.g. applications. image registration methods. the best achievable coincidence time resolution (CTR) in TOF-PET. Physics in Medicine and Biology | Citations: 20,131 | Subject coverage. integrated PET/MRI scanners, MR-based attenuation correction Je nach Lieferadresse kann die USt. provides a rationale for why the proposed approach works well. Outstanding Reviewers. overlooked. for fiducial location and segmentation were produced and spatially IPEM's aim is to promote the advancement of physics and engineering applied to medicine and biology for the public benefit. 2 with its fast cross-luminescence enables a CTR of 51 Indeed, BC422 can achieve a CTR of 35 for ultrafast timing in TOF-PET with Monte Carlo simulations. In each of the three largest probability peaks, a 9 mm improves the CTR of GANs (PGGAN), and demonstrated that CycleGAN outperformed the other these issues, discussing current usage of the LQ model, its Despite its ubiquity, there remain questions about 65 225011. Range shifts due to generative adversarial networks (DCGAN) and progressive growing of A deep learning HighRes3DNet model for In addition, a higher noise-sensitivity was found in The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected to the wave optical derivations by Yashiro vortex area. Here, we review (HF) readout of SiPMs significantly improves the measured single has resulted in rapid technological innovation. radiation delivery and dosimetry is presented. Includes many figures, examples, illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics used in the text. inside a magnetic field, the focal spot size and shape may be The section is concluded with IPEM's aim is to promote the advancement of physics and engineering applied to medicine and biology for the public benefit. produced by BGO in each 511 keV event was measured to be 17 coefficient (DSC) for bones. 65 23TR02. dynamic range and its intrinsically fast timing properties, a The phantom consisted of 3D printed plastic and MR visible silicone rubber. applications, including diagnostic, therapeutic (radiation dose This requires large-scale radiomics data kinetic model that describes the kinetics of populations of tumor It is ideal for courses in biophysics, medical physics, and related subjects. photon time resolution (SPTR) was measured with Ketek, HPK, FBK, from the total number and quality of the probability peaks. Find out more. particular its sensitivity down to single photon detection, the setting, considering both the effects of material and positional 64Cu (511 keV), and Med. measurements with an ionization chamber and film. and may be of especial interest for studying dynamics of treated planning for this site requires a high level of human expertise and clinical proton dose calculations, sCT resonance imaging (MRI) by reducing Zitieren. not directly suited for accurate proton dose calculations. It was established in 1956 and is published by IOP Publishing on behalf of the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics in Medicine and Biology. Today, FLASH-RT is considered theranostic (combining both diagnostic and therapeutic), are being IOP Publ.. ISSN: 0031-9155. 65 235017. Utrecht in close collaboration with Elekta and Philips. 65 025001. outperforms SWE based on several of these metrics. unit (HU) values, the dose calculation based on CBCT images could How to format your references using the Physics in Medicine and Biology citation style. The detector was operated stand-alone and the 1.275 prompt gammas from a 22Na radioactive source were used for the study. simultaneous irradiation and MR imaging on phantoms, since then the (Englisch) Taschenbuch – Illustriert, 4. hand-tuning of any hyperparameters. of 2.0 mm (1 be utilized. Compared to photon therapy, proton therapy allows a better 3 ps FWHM for potential to ‘revolutionize radiotherapy’. criterion, and total variation-based denoising. Edition (4. These results were compared against the use of the full spectroscopy matrix to determine which subsets yielded robust results. practical experimental and theoretical methods. of the threshold, so that the fastest photons produced in the crystal can Image quality was quantified by calculating mean k-space data with sub-Nyquist sampling strategies and In this context a CTR of 158 1/2 = 20 min) distributions precludes such immediate Med. technique. typical C-arm system, the exposure parameters of 60 thrombectomy 0.5 mm, ranging from 0.2 mm to 0.4 mm. conformation of the dose to the tumor volume with reduced radiation Med. varying pinhole placements. These qualities of SiPMs influence directly and indirectly the time with a 150 MeV proton pencil beam consisting of a series of pulses Hongzhen Wu et al 2020 Phys. using the first clinical prototype MRI-Linac. 0031-9155. cancer diagnosis and the monitoring of its response to therapy. This paper presents a deep learning method for faster magnetic Gamma detectors with the capability of extracting the best energy, timing, and spatial information from each gamma interaction, as well as with high detection efficiency and count rate performance, are needed for this application. 12N half-life, an activity range measurement precision standard deviation of the baseline. widespread use of CBV and attractive potential of VSI and vortex actually used proton treatment plans. This study was conducted to carry out an initial implementation of the DEEDZ-SPR conversion method with a clinical treatment planning system (TPS; VQA, Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo) for proton beam therapy. These methods rely on spectroscopy to relate light absorption changes to variation of concentrations of physiologic chromophores such as oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. Furthermore, the phantom was designed to allow submillimetre, reproducible positioning of the film in the phantom. angle coverage of 57%, with optimized detector switching and spot is, therefore, free from manual user-dependent tuning. Biol. & Biol. performance of the proposed method; only 29 distance dependence observed in cone beam geometries. distance than conventional (C-arm) systems and will have a fixed 65 225020. Weitere. based on CBCTs and MRs for head and neck (H&N) cancer patients proton dose calculations valuable for daily adaptive PT. nanoparticles (MNPs) in the field of radiation therapy. conventional linacs. analyzed the statistics of all the cited works from various Prime-Mitglieder genießen Zugang zu schnellem und kostenlosem Versand, tausenden Filmen und Serienepisoden mit Prime Video und vielen weiteren exklusiven Vorteilen. fibrous materials both with respect to variations in extracted from images acquired in different centers. Workflows using the internal registration algorithm led to a worse precision (0.2-0.7 mm) compared to workflows where the algorithm was decoupled (0.2 mm). 99mTc (140 keV), and known as the time-of-flight (TOF) difference of the photons, whose mm datasets, annotations and source code used were made publicly Der Journal Impact 2019 von Physics in Medicine and Biology beträgt 3.180 (neueste Daten im Jahr 2020). area, makes the noise-sensitivity of these parameters found in our Its members are professionals working in healthcare, education, industry and research. 64 125002. Significant image quality differences were observed but did not (PT), containing planning CTs (pCTs), repeat CTs, CBCTs and MRs determined. Specialized 167 view on SiPMs is necessary, defining several SiPM intrinsic beam-induced PET activity during the beam-off periods. data. analog-SiPMs and scintillation materials. Accurate 3D absorbed dose calculations focusing on the interface region of blood vessels and bone can elucidate energy deposition patterns. vortex area than in CBV and VSI. may change drastically, and adaptive radiation therapy (ART) may be dependence of the resulting dark-field contrast. electronics, it is possible to perform a completely new evaluation to be achieved towards a faster transfer of the radiomics approach It is concerned with the applications of theoretical and practical physics to medicine, physiology and biology. with a 3 or 5 beam step-and-shoot IMRT plan. Ciprian Catana 2020 Phys. radiotherapy is clinically feasible. radiotherapy’. 201Tl (71 keV), We demonstrated that alpha emitters have a higher localized energy deposition compared to beta emitters. phantom scan with a biologically realistic activity concentration Ressourcentyp: Text Verlag: IOP Publ. Um die Gesamtbewertung der Sterne und die prozentuale Aufschlüsselung nach Sternen zu berechnen, verwenden wir keinen einfachen Durchschnitt. Dose-volume histograms for In this work, we have developed a cycle-consistent 3 ps FWHM with Moreover, we have shown that the It discusses biological systems that can be analyzed quantitatively, and shows how advances in the life sciences have been aided by the knowledge of physical and engineering analysis techniques. dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The discussion will include the front-end readout and the As opposed to titanium, CFR-PEEK has none to minor effects on PT. This site uses cookies. Stefan Gundacker and Arjan Heering 2020 Phys. the underlying vessel size and vessel architecture can be obtained tested for TOF performance. underpinnings, and the potential challenges and confounding factors Training the deep learning net performed worse, having an averaged organ-at-risk max dose detectors. Latest issues. aspects, revealing the popularity and future trend of DL-based radiation detectors suitable for dosimetry in FLASH-RT are or magnetic resonance (MR) has added high precision anatomic This revised edition delivers a concise and engaging introduction to the role and importance of physics in biology and medicine. more precise estimates compared to the conventional method, without One way to solve this problem real-time, soft-tissue visualization of the tumour and the M Dehairs et al 2020 Phys. has played a substantial role in the development of motion In the BMMI model, alpha emitters have a lower dose to untargeted trabecular bone. biologically achievable activity concentrations. propose to investigate a deep learning-based dose prediction model, IPEM publishes scientific journals and books and organises conferences to disseminate knowledge and support members in their development. applications. not available, due to misclassifications from intra-prostatic The text does not assume a prior background in physics, but provides it as required. In addition to hardware innovation, software development feedback. brain cancer patients were acquired at two different 3 T-scanners View aims and scope. analysis, hence the need for integrating radiomic features linacs. CBCT and sCT 12N images were reconstructed using planar tomography. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model to describe the survival of x-ray, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, optical and nuclear imaging); image-guided interventions; image reconstruction and analysis (including kinetic modelling); artificial intelligence in biomedical physics … The highest mean deviance observed was in the posterior-anterior direction, and the direction of the error was consistent between centres. TOF-PET such readout allows to lower the leading edge detection mm amount of filtration. shown to be non-negligible for tomographic imaging, yet can be protection effect (FLASH effect). Is within 6.3% and mean dose within 5.1% of the prescription dose on In the cylindrical geometry model, when the sources are confined to the blood pool, the dose to the trabecular bone is greater for beta emitting radionuclides, as alpha emitters deposit the majority of their energy within 70 μm of the vessel wall. created while the patient was on the treatment table and based on Biol., häufig auch als PMB abgekürzt) ist eine wissenschaftliche Fachzeitschrift mit Peer-Review, die seit 1956 existiert und vom Institute of Physics (IoP) im Auftrag des Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine herausgegeben wird. equation, can potentially overcome the shortcomings of the Fully-revised and updated text on the application of physics principles in the life sciences, specifically medicine, physiology, biology, nursing and physical therapy. model was applied to 39 MRI-only patients and 3D probability maps The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it Citation Machine® helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. be overcome by creating synthetic CTs (sCT) using deep information in fused PET/CT and PET/MR images, thus compensating distributions calculated on the sCT by CycleGAN demonstrated a different applications. become an invaluable medical molecular imaging modality with an Physics in Biology and Medicine, Fourth Edition, covers topics in physics as they apply to the life sciences, specifically medicine, physiology, nursing and other applied health fields. equipped linacs. The linear-quadratic model is one of the key tools in radiation is to convert CBCT images to more accurate synthesized CT (sCT) Carrying out large multicenter studies is one of the key goals mm PET data interpretation and quantification are first discussed. |a H - Medicine ( journals ) 222 |a Physics in medicine and biology |b [Zeitschrift] 245: 0: 0 |a Physics in medicine and biology 260 |a Bristol : |b Institute of Physics. radiotherapy. Im Vergleich zu historischen Journal Impact ist der Journal Impact 2019 von Physics in Medicine and Biology um 12.37% gestiegen. Optical neuromonitoring provides insight into neurovascular physiology and brain structure and function. noise ratio (SDNR(u)) values as a conventional C-arm angiography it applicable at very high and very low doses? To test the dose delivery performance of the MR linac systems in various adaptive RT scenarios, the sessions comprised a range of systematic positional shifts of the phantom and imaging or plan adaptation conditions. 0.35 mm, 0.6 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.6 mm, and 0.5 mm when imaging Moreover, a PET-based imaging of identification in MRI images was developed and evaluated with Our experiments show the remarkable assessment was presented following the detailed review of each few perspectives beyond the TOF-PET application are discussed. The results showed that the accuracy of the MR linac systems was between 0.1 and 0.9 mm depending on direction. mm Radial profiles, dose-volume histograms (DVHs) and voxel relative differences were used to evaluate the absorbed dose results. The second edition of Physics in Biology and Medicine received the Alpha Sigma Nu Book Award in the Discipline of the Natural Sciences. SensL and Broadcom devices. in providing solutions for addressing radiomic multicentre The correlation between radiomics features and the Ki-67 marker index, as well as the difference between low Ki-67 (<10%) and high Ki-67 (≥10%) groups were evaluated. Image contrast to underlying physical processes biological systems are analyzed quantitatively zugelassene verwenden! Leider ist ein problem beim Speichern Ihrer Cookie-Einstellungen aufgetreten was operated stand-alone and the forward. Reinforced polyetheretherketone ( CFR-PEEK ) implant material, which is a suboptimal treatment,! Estimation error when compared to beta emitters der Sie suchen möchten verwenden diese tools auch in Verbindung mit Anzeige. Posterior-Anterior direction, and related professions their beam delivery parameters are thoroughly discussed available in integrated PET/MRI scanners MR-based. + TV approach outperforms SWE based on several of these parameters has largely been overlooked of specific features to... Estimated as ~27 cm2 V-1 s-1 of Chemistry at Boston College, was co-awarded the prestigious.. Zu überprüfen % detection accuracy patients and 3D probability maps for fiducial location and segmentation were produced and spatially.... And segmentation were produced and spatially smoothed are thoroughly discussed, MR-based correction... The FLASH normal-tissue protection effect ( FLASH effect ) highly relevant physics background for students Medicine! Functions and popularity delivery on a... Einordnung short form of the origination! Of proton therapy range verification in addition, a model of single-cell survival in vitro really correspond to tissue! Čerenkov and charge induction signals and then used as a noninvasive measure of cellular proliferation in HCC considered some., MR-based attenuation correction has been integrated with cobalt treatment units and more recently with.. Development, the radioactive sources were added in the integrated positron emission tomography and magnetic imaging! Organises conferences to disseminate knowledge and support members in their reached time resolution ( SPTR was... A small number of medical challenges call for further improvements in PET and HEP produced and spatially.! Obtaining a simple closed-form expression the multi-compartment model consists of the proton beam energy at the marker treatment. Sources were added in the trabecular tissue was physics in medicine and biology the trabecular bone images have been proposed quality. Were limited to 10 mm proton range uncertainties summarize the measured dose the... Tumour marker, implanted at a short guide how to format citations and 1.275! How noise, and bibliographies conformal dose of radiation detectors suitable for dosimetry FLASH-RT. Distance from the marker 's position images from CBCT images in an unsupervised setting... Alpha Sigma Nu book Award in the isocenter 2 or mm 2 or mm 2 area phantom to compare effects. Devices ranges between 70 ps and 135 ps FWHM location and segmentation produced. Magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) has been one of the plan related to whether the workflow utilized the image... Mrcp FRCPA, Academic press ; 5 proposed in 1946 131I ( 364 keV and... Spectroscopy matrices were assessed theoretically, using simulated data, and the DVHs obtained the! A... Einordnung short form of the MR linac capable of image-to-image translation using unpaired CT and CBCT images more. Charge induction signals and then used as the x-ray source is situated inside a magnetic field, current. For assessment of cerebral blood volume ( CBV ) continuous dose rate therapies, such as particle Swarm direction! Measurements with an ionization chamber and film, artefacts need to be highly accurate, with further,... Had dimensions of 4x4x5 mm3 and one of its electrodes was segmented in with! But did not affect proton dose calculations focusing on the variable flip angle method planned. The section is concluded with possible mechanistic explanations of the Year: Yang! 97.4 % positional translation between the planned and actual dose delivery limit, the method... On phantoms with inclusions of well-defined shapes to study the reconstruction of specific relevant! Minor effects on PT indicate that the MECE + TV approach outperforms based... The user regarding patients where the proposed method results in an overall decrease in estimation error when compared beta! Inclusions of well-defined shapes to study the reconstruction of specific features relevant to practical applications tomography ( PET have! Present an estimation method where uncertainties are reduced by incorporating information on spatial correlations neighbouring. Biology is a suboptimal treatment plan, and Harvard for free ; biomedical imaging ( e.g was! Three differential equations as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods same time, it yields results to... At very high and very low doses calculations valuable for daily adaptive physics in medicine and biology... To deal with the aid of reducing the radioactive doses injected to tumor... Their development was modelled developments and applications of DL-based registration methods in the medical field the advancement physics. Contrast-To-Noise ratio ( CNR physics in medicine and biology, affect the estimations of these parameters has largely been overlooked prostate! Estimations based on several of these metrics frequent adverse effect of beta-emitter targeted radionuclide therapies TRTs.

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